reede, 21. juuni 2013

fs: Bioenergia potentsiaal aedniksipelgate kolooniates


Pilt: Biomass Magazine

Wisconsin-Madisoni Ülikooli teadlased leidsid aedniksipelgate kolooniate seenekasvandusi uurides uued ensüümid, mis võivad aidata degradeerida toiduks sobimatut biomassi kütuse tootmiseks. Leitud ensüümid on teadlaste rühma juhi Frank Aylward’i sõnul küll sarnased nendele, mida juba tuntakse, kuid siiski täiesti uued, ja neid ei ole seni identifitseeritud ega kirjeldatud. Nende uute ensüümide leidmine avab teadlaste sõnul ukse tehnoloogilisteks rakendusteks, kuna nende kasutamine koos olemasolevate tehnoloogiatega võimaldab biomassi praegusest paremini degradeerida.

Seente ja bakterite sümbioosis toodetakse koloonias sipelgate jaoks vajalikku toitu, mis on rikas rasvade, aminohapete ja teiste toitainete poolest. Nende tootmiseks vajab seen suhkrut, mis saadakse sipelgate poolt toodud lehtedes oleva tselluloosi pikkadest molekulidest. Suhkru kättesaamiseks toodab seen ensüüme, mis lõhustavad tselluloosi glükoosi osakesteks. Kuigi seened teevad spetsiaalsete ensüümide abil lõviosa tselluloosi degradeerimisest, on oluline roll ka bakteritel, mis aitavad suurendada seente efektiivsust. Lisaks nitrogeeni ja oluliste vitamiinide tootmisele aitavad bakterid ilmselt seenel kätte saada energiarikast tselluloosi, lõhkudes seda ümbritsevaid teisi polümeere.

Juurdepääs tselluloosile ja selle lõhustamine on eesmärgiks ka teadlastele, kes püüavad fermenteerida ladustunud suhkrut etanooliks ja teisteks biokütusteks. Ensüümid, nagu aedniksipelgate seente omad, on spetsialiseerunud lehtede lõhustamisele. Mõistmine, kuidas need ensüümid töötavad sipelgate kolooniates, aitab teadlastel luua sarnaseid meetodeid viljakõrtest, rohust jmt. saadud biomassi töötlemiseks.

Teadlased kavatsevad uurida ka teiste seeni kasvatavate putukate (nt mõned termiidid ja põrnikad) kolooniaid ning loodavad, et nende komplekssete süsteemide mõistmine aitab neil jagada biomassi degradeerimise saladusi bioenergia uurijatega.

Sipelgate seenekasvatuse protsess on keerukas, mistõttu tuleb biokütuse tootmiseks ilmselt luua sünteetilisi ensüüme. See protsess võib olla aeganõudev ja kallis, kuid uute ja efektiivsemate ensüümide leidmine on siiski paljutõotav. Tselluloos-biokütust saaks toota rohust, puutükikestest või muust taimsest materjalist, mida ei kasutata toiduks. Seega võimaldaks uus tehnoloogia vältida USA ja EL biokütuste poliitika negatiivset mõju toidu kättesaadavusele ja hinnale, kasutades samal ajal seni põllule jäänud jäägid biokütuse tootmiseks. 

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